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Maritime transport and shipping costs Introduction

In accordance with the mode of operation of the ship, maritime transport can be divided into liner shipping and charter transport.
A. liner shipping
. A liner shipping characteristics: (l) liner shipping have fixed schedules, routes, ports of call and the relatively fixed freight rates; (2) the liner shipping includes handling fee, so the liner port handling by the vessels; ( 3) the number of liner cargo carrier more flexible, the owner booking demand, especially for general cargo and container transport member cargo.
b. Liner shipping.
Liner Liner freight tariffs regulations, including basic freight and surcharges. Shipment divided into two basic categories: one is the traditional breakbulk freight; one is the container box package rates.
Breakbulk commodity prices but also by the number of items or total revenue freight. Low value bulk goods, by ship and cargo tariffs agreed by the parties.
The liner shipping surcharge under various names, including; long surcharges, overweight surcharge, select surcharges port of discharge port of discharge changes surcharges, fuel surcharges, port congestion surcharges, deviation surcharges, additional transshipment direct costs and additional fees.
Container transport costs in addition to the shipping costs, the need to include the relevant fees and equipment costs.
In addition, shipping lines for different products mixed in the same package, according to which the freight charges higher total income. The same ticket goods, such as packaging is different, different charging levels and standards, such as the shipper fails to set out separately in different packaging gross weight and volume of the goods by a unanimous vote count charge higher freight revenue, there are two or more in the same bill of lading different name of goods, the shipper is not separately identified as gross and volume, but also from the high billing.
B. charter transport
Charter means chartering a boat. Relatively low-cost charter liner, and optionally direct route, it is generally used for bulk cargo charter transport. There are definite way charter and voyage charter charter two kinds.
1. The stroke charter. Cheng is scheduled charter flight charter based approach, also known as Cheng charter. Ship cargo transportation tasks must be completed according to the provisions of voyage charter contract, and is responsible for operational management of the ship and the expenses of the voyage. Cheng charter generally based on the number of freight shipments, there are at the amount calculated by the voyage charter.
Charter rights and obligations stipulated by the charter contract. Cheng charter way, the contract should be clear whether the burden of the ship in the port cargo handling costs. If the ship does not pay loading and unloading, loading and unloading should be prescribed period or unloading rate and the corresponding demurrage and despatch in the contract. Such as loading and unloading the lessor fails to complete within the deadline. To compensate for the resulting loss delay the ship sailing, the ship shall pay a penalty, that demurrage. As the lessor in advance of the ship loading and unloading direction by the lessor to pay a bonus, called despatch. Usually despatch half demurrage.
2. charter. Charter is rented by a certain time ship transport mode, also known as the charter period, the ship should be to provide a seaworthy ship the lease term of the contract, and the burden of maintaining the airworthiness of the related costs. Charterer in this period can still be prescribed trade area on their own ship scheduling disposal, it should be responsible for fuel costs, port charges and handling fees during the operation of the expenses.


3, packaging and quantity (Package & Quantity). Stated nature of the package, such as boxes, bundles, packages and specific number to containerized also noted.
4, goods (Description of Goods). Goods can not be written as department stores, food, and to write a specific name, such as clothing, rice, and other hardware. Writable collectively but not conflict with the name of the goods listed in the invoice.
5, the insured amount (Amount Insured). The proportion of the contract of sale by the addition of computing the amount of insurance, the insured amount rounded up to an integer (rounding method can not be used), the currency used should be consistent with the invoice.
6, the name of the vessel or shipping tool (Per Conveyance). It should indicate the name of the vessel ocean.
7, sailing date (Slg. On abt.). Press OK or about the date, month, day to fill, but listed in the bill of lading date of sailing to be consistent.
8, Voyage. That indicate where to stop and where to departure. Such as turn inland, inland cities will have to indicate the name, can not generally write "inland cities."
9, insurance coverage (Conditions). To clear and specific risks, not generally write "marine insurance" (Marine clauses).
10, reparations Location (Claim Payable At ......). Usually in the freight destination, if the location is outside the destination to be indicated.
11, enrollment date (Applicant's Date). Stated policy on a single date, not later than the departure date of the bill of lading.
After handling insurance insured items there is a change or find mistakes, we should timely written notice to the insurance company, insurance company or, as the case in the original policy change, or a stand alone batch to prevent passive and negative consequences that may arise.
In general, payment by the contract, when the seller after the export of goods loaded Shanghai wheel, the risk has been transferred to the buyer. If the insurance policy is the seller of the insured, according to business practices, the seller before the settlement documents to the bank, in the original insurance policy stamped signature (ie endorsement). So the interest in this insurance policy is transferred along with the insurance rights of the goods transferred to the holder of the document.
Insurance requisition items found errors, omissions, etc., shall promptly notify the insurance company to correct, or has issued an insurance policy who, if found any content errors, omissions or changes to the project and so the insurance policy, should be re-issued by the insurance company insurance policy or issue an endorsement (endorsement), to change the insurance policy as written documents; endorsement should be pasted in the original insurance policy, insurance companies and by the saddle seal is an integral part of the insurance policy. As the policy was sent to the consignee shall send the original single line sent to the consignee, the requirements attached to the original insurance policy. As insurance requisitions false or concealing the true situation, the loss occurred, the insurance company can not be liable.
Currently insurance companies in some areas in order to facilitate our work, do not use the insurance application form, by the insured themselves directly on behalf of the insurance company Shanzhi insurance, and then provide a copy of the letter of credit and invoices to the insurance company (or other similar document in place of a single application ), insurance companies, according to the audit, fill risks and signature.

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